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Conversion of Dirty Coal to Pure Scented Fuel

 

After reviewing the process our experts conclude that the process, while ingenious, relies on conventional engineering practice and because of its low temperature/low pressure nature should not represent a significant technical risk if a commercial-sized project is undertaken. "The leaching section of the plant represents technology well within the boundaries of contemporary engineering design."

The process begins by reducing untreated coal to less than 2 mm by conventional reduction and screen-selection methods. The coal is then reacted with fluorine acid. A by-product of the reaction is silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) gas, which is processed through a hydrolyzer to produce silica (SiO2) and fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6). The reacted coal is sent to a separator, which separates iron sulfide ( FeS ) and other heavy metals. The remaining mixture is sent to a solids-liquids separation (Filter 1). Filtered acids and silicon tetrafluoride gas is sent to the acid plant for reprocessing. The filtered and treated coal product is washed with aqueous fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6). The resulting mixture is once again filtered (Filter 2) and then sent to a dryer where it is flash baked at temperatures between 250C to 400C to remove any remaining hydrofluorsilicic acid from the coal product. Any liberated hydrogenfluoride and silicon tetrafluorine gas is sent to the acid plant for processing back into useful fluorine acid. After drying, the resulting product is a light, free-flowing granular material which can easily be conveyed pneumatically via pipeline or conveniently stored and shipped via rail. It is essentially ash free and thus joins natural gas and fuel oils in the family of fuels requiring no ash handling facilities in the boiler, or precipitation or filtration plant in the stack. Because the product is relatively ash free it can be used in a highly efficient combined-cycle power plant operation (potentially over 50% efficient), resulting in much lower CO2 emissions (greenhouse gas) when compared to conventional coal-fired power plants having 30-40% efficiency.

Heat for the drying process is provided by the exhaust of a gas turbine. The gas turbine can be fueled either by the product or natural gas. For a typical sized plant (500,000 metric tons of the product/year) the on-site gas turbine would be sized for 27 MW of production, with 2 MW consumed by the plant itself, producing a 25-MW net electric production available for sale to the electric grid. Approximately 10% of the output would be needed to fire the gas turbine. 

        Patented and proven clean process that chemically refines all types of coal and coal waste before combustion into 99.7% + pure hydrocarbon fuel, used as a feedstock for fuel cells, combusted in conventional electrical power generation, or used in captive industrial boilers and other applications, virtually eliminating SOx, NOx, Hg and ash

        Produces clean fuel priced 30% below natural gas, without price volatility, enabling coal producers to compete with natural gas on an economic and environmental basis, in boilers, turbines and other applications (much less expensive than scrubbers in coal fuel generation)

        Positioned to dominate the $30 billion fossil fuel power generation market, which is expected to double over the next 20 years

        Eliminates need for expensive scrubbers, precipitators, bag houses, ash handlers and other pollution control equipment (which can cost more than $200 million for a $900 million power plant)

        Early revenue through licensing

        Projected revenues exceeding $100 million and EBITDA exceeding $30 million in 2005, before upside from sale of emission and carbon credits

        Enables environmental rehabilitation of coal waste/slurry ponds

        With 90% of U.S. energy reserves in coal, and 52% of current power production from coal, enhances U.S. energy security

 

Near elimination of sulfur (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate emissions, including finely divided heavy-metal dusts. This would reduce or eliminate the acid content of rain and smog- and haze-forming atmospheric pollutants, lessening the detrimental effects of particulates on crop yields, forest productivity and the health of humans and livestock.

Reduces land-use requirements to dispose of clinker and fly ash, which result from traditional coal-fired plants.

Reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from increased power generation efficiencies.

Eliminates the need for additional pollution-control measures. Combustion temperatures can be held below the threshold for NOx formation. The minimal fly-ash emissions are free of biotoxic heavy-metal oxides and carbonyls. By removing and recovering the ash minerals before combustion, the product avoids the land-use consequences of conventional-coal power station technologies.

Stops surface water pollution by eliminating the precipitation of airborne wastes, and lechates from solid-waste disposal areas.

Complies with the most severe emission standards set for new power stations. Specifically, it will meet the standards set by the Australian Environment Council, National Health and Medical Research Council, the Umweltbundesamt for Germany, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states such as California. The most stringent standards are between 160mg and 270mg SO2/m3, 80-540mg NO2/m3 and 35-50mg/m3 for particulates if the Swedish standards are used, or 740-1480 SO2/m3, 615-980mg NO2/m3 and 40-125mg/m3 particulates if U.S. standards are followed.

Contains an absolute maximum of 0.3% ash, consisting almost entirely of oxides of aluminum, silicon and titanium. The resulting flue-gas emissions will be environmentally benign, and below ambient levels of atmospheric particulates.

Reduces or eliminates the most toxic metal-oxide emissions that are produced in the vapor phase at stack gas temperatures which cannot be removed by the electrostatic precipitators or bag houses customarily used to recover fly-ash in today's power plants.

Increased power-plant efficiency resulting from the use of the  product in gas turbines and combined-cycle electric power generation technologies. A  power plant can achieve thermal efficiencies of 51% or more in combined-cycle power generation, instead of 31-33%, which is typical of conventional coal-fired units equipped with high intensity fly-ash removal and flue-gas desulfurization equipment.

Reduction in coal consumption per unit of power output by as much as 55%, with corresponding reductions in total carbon dioxide emissions.