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POLYMERight has developed and marketed a family of proprietary "Underwater Glue" epoxy-based adhesives which includes several formulations with different set times (from 5 minutes to 2 hours). These controllable set time products, manufactured according to a recently issued patent, are designed to satisfy the requirements of a wide variety of personal use and industrial applications. These materials offer several very important advantages over more conventional adhesives, as follows:
First, POLYMERight's Underwater Glue can be applied underwater or on wet substrates without any significant change of bonding strength. Most epoxy adhesives cannot effectively bond underwater and, in fact, require thoroughly dried surfaces before application of the adhesive to achieve usable adhesion. The ability to work well under wet conditions can be of substantial advantage in such applications as plumbing, irrigation systems, sprinkler systems, marine installations, construction, maintenance, etc.
The Underwater Glue is effective on most frequently used materials except for very low energy surfaces such as Teflon, silicone, polypropylene and polyethylene.
Second, these products bond very strongly to PVC. This is very unusual in several respects. PVC bonding is currently done in one of two ways, either with cyanoacrylate adhesives (Crazy GlueŽ, Super GlueŽ, etc.) or with PVC cements. However, cyanoacrylate adhesives are very difficult to work with in the field, they usually do not allow sufficient working time to properly fit the parts to be bonded to one another, they require a dry surface, provide low peel strength and have a tendency to bind fingers and gloves. PVC cements not only contain hazardous, volatile, flammable and very malodorous solvents that must be evaporated, but they can only be used to bond tight fitting PVC surfaces that do not have any appreciable gaps between them. They cannot be used to bond wet PVC surfaces together or to glue PVC to other substrates.
POLYMERight Underwater Glue is entirely VOC free, will bond PVC (even under water) to PVC, to many other plastics, ceramics, concrete, metals, brick, glass, etc., as well as bind all of those materials together. Underwater Glue may be used both for close fitting joints and for filling gaps between the details that are being bonded, acting as a sealant. It forms gap-filling seals that are tough, bendable, and extensible, exhibiting none of the brittleness of more typical epoxy adhesives. Applications for these Underwater Glue products include joints for PVC piping, tank linings and coatings, swimming pools, concrete cracks and joints, etc. The flexibility and strength of joints made with Underwater Glue make it very suitable even for repairs to inflatable boats, life jackets, balloons and similar goods made from Hypalon, PVC or polyurethane.
The mechanical properties of cured formulations, their chemical resistance and typical bond strengths with a variety of materials are shown in the Tables that follow.
Third, POLYMERight Underwater Glue remains flexible after curing. Typically, bonds made with conventional epoxy adhesives are known to be brittle, with normal elongation of only 3-5%. Bonds made with such epoxies may fail as the joined materials shrink and expand with temperature variations (especially with dissimilar materials such as metal bonded to glass). Earlier attempts to create more flexible and tough epoxy adhesives typically have led to reduction of the strength of the bond, and the elongation improvement initially observed is gradually lost as the joint ages.
In contrast, cured POLYMERight Underwater Glue formulations exhibit elongation of 28-32%. Joints made with it remain tough and flexible long term and even at temperatures as low as -20°F. This high flexibility of the adhesive causes the bond joint to act as a damper for impact and vibration and it will tolerate significant bending and shock forces. Many cold weather, high vibration or impact applications are uniquely enabled by these properties.
Convenient retail packages of POLYMERight's UG have been on sale for several years in the US through retail chains for hardware, marine supplies, home and swimming pool repair, automotive parts shops, etc. Distribution and sales are growing and the product was recognized as the outstanding new product at the US National Hardware Show in 2002. Industrial applications in automotive, piping, construction and maintenance operations have been initiated and these and other industrial uses are also expected to grow rapidly.
The majority of POLYMERight's Underwater Glue formulations have the following characteristics, although different combinations of properties can be designed for specialized end uses.:
By Volume (Resin:Hardener) 1:1 By Weight (Resin:Hardener) 4:3
Typical Properties of Cured Formulation
Flexural Modulus 80,000 - 84,000 psi Tensile Modulus 74,000 - 78,000 psi Tensile Strength 1,800 - 2,200 psi Elongation 28-32%
Chemical resistance (90 Days Weight Gain)
5% Sulfuric Acid 5% 5% Caustic 1% Tap Water 2%
Bonding Strength, Shear
Hard PVC 1,800 psi ABS 600 psi Carbon steel 3,000 psi
T-Peel Strength of Bonded Flexible PVC
Water washed surface 35.8 LB/in Abraded surface 38.7 LB/in
180° Flexible PVC Peel Strength from Different Substrates
Hard PVC 32.7 LB/in ABS 15.5 LB/in Polyester 29.4 LB/in Dry cement brick 40.0 LB/in Wet cement brick 33.9 LB/in Dry red brick 41.3 LB/in Wet red brick 45.8 LB/in
POLYMERight's patented line of adjustable cure time underwater glue products offers a unique and highly diversified series of retail and industrial market opportunities. To learn more about these products, and their unique capabilities and applications, please contact us at POLYMERight, Inc. by phone, fax or e-mail.